"The Backbone of Justice: Exploring the Judiciary System's Legal Structure, Organizational Hierarchy, and Function"

"The Backbone of Justice: Exploring the Judiciary System's Legal Structure, Organizational Hierarchy, and Function"

Download FREE LegalStix App

Structure, Organization, and Functioning of the Indian Judiciary


The Indian judiciary plays a crucial role in interpreting and enforcing the law, making it an essential component of the government. The judiciary is structured hierarchically, with the Supreme Court at the apex, followed by the High Courts, and then the lower courts. It has various functions, such as providing legal advice to the government, hearing appeals, and ensuring justice is carried out fairly and impartially.

Structure of the Indian Judiciary

The Indian judiciary is organized in a hierarchical manner, with the Supreme Court as the highest court of appeal in the country. It consists of the Chief Justice and 30 other judges who are appointed by the President of India. The Supreme Court has original, appellate, and advisory jurisdiction. Its decisions are binding on all courts in the country and act as precedents for lower courts to follow.

Beneath the Supreme Court, there are High Courts located in each state capital. The High Courts have general supervisory authority over all subordinate courts within their jurisdictions. Each High Court is headed by a Chief Justice and has several other judges. They have the power to interpret laws, hear appeals from lower courts, and ensure justice is delivered effectively.

Subordinate courts form the lower level of the judicial system in India. These include District Courts, Taluka Courts, Munsifs Magistrates' Courts, and Village Panchayat Courts. The District Courts have jurisdiction over specific districts and handle both civil and criminal cases. The lower courts ensure that justice is administered at the grassroots level and play a vital role in resolving disputes within their respective jurisdictions.

Functions of the Indian Judiciary

1. Administration of Justice

The primary function of the Indian judiciary is to administer justice and resolve legal disputes. The courts ensure that individuals receive a fair and impartial hearing, and their rights are protected. Citizens have the right to approach the Supreme Court and High Courts when their fundamental rights are violated. The judiciary strives to swiftly serve justice and eliminate all forms of injustice.

2. Legislative Interpretation and Application

The judiciary interprets and applies laws enacted by the Parliament. The courts are responsible for providing an accurate interpretation of the law and ensuring its proper application. In some cases, the courts may need to modify the literal meaning of a statute to ensure fairness and justice. They have the authority to change the interpretation of a law to fit the specific circumstances of a case.

3. Lawmaking

In addition to interpreting and applying laws, the judiciary also has the power to make laws. The Supreme Court, through its judgments, sets precedents that lower courts must follow. These precedents become binding on all lower courts and have the force of law. The High Courts also have supervisory authority over lower courts, ensuring that all courts and tribunals within their jurisdiction operate in accordance with the law.

4. Safeguarding Fundamental Rights

The judiciary plays a crucial role in safeguarding the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution. It ensures that these rights are protected and enforced. Individuals can approach the courts when their fundamental rights are violated, and the judiciary acts as a guardian of these rights.

5. Judicial Review

The Indian judiciary has the power of judicial review, which allows it to review the constitutionality of laws and executive actions. The courts can strike down laws or actions that are deemed unconstitutional, ensuring that the government operates within the limits set by the Constitution.

6. Ensuring Fairness and Impartiality

The judiciary ensures fairness and impartiality in the administration of justice. Judges are expected to be neutral and unbiased in their decision-making process. They must adhere to principles of natural justice and ensure that all parties to a case are given a fair opportunity to present their arguments and evidence.

7. Appellate Jurisdiction

The judiciary has appellate jurisdiction, which means it hears appeals from lower courts. Individuals who are dissatisfied with the decision of a lower court can approach a higher court for review. This allows for a fair and impartial reconsideration of the case, ensuring that errors or miscarriages of justice are rectified.

8. Legal Advice to the Government

The judiciary provides legal advice to the government on various legal matters. The government can seek the opinion of the courts on constitutional issues, legal interpretations, and policy matters. This ensures that the government acts in accordance with the law and that its actions are legally sound.


The Indian judiciary is a vital pillar of the government, responsible for interpreting and enforcing the law. Its hierarchical structure, with the Supreme Court at the top, ensures a systematic and efficient administration of justice. The judiciary's functions encompass administering justice, interpreting and applying laws, safeguarding fundamental rights, and ensuring fairness and impartiality. The judiciary plays a critical role in upholding the rule of law and protecting the rights of citizens in India.

Loading Result...

Download FREE LegalStix App

Get instant updates!

Request a callback
Register Now