Top Legal Maxims and Phrases that Every Law Students Must be Aware of
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Top Legal Maxims and Phrases that Every Law Students Must be Aware of

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Legal maxims play a crucial role in the field of law as they encapsulate established principles that are universally recognized. As a law student, it is essential to have a tight grasp over these legal maxims and foreign words to excel in exams and develop a deep understanding of legal aptitude. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore a wide range of important legal maxims and phrases, providing easy-to-understand meanings and explanations.

What Are Legal Maxims?

Legal maxims are principles of law that have been widely accepted and acknowledged in the legal field. These maxims are often expressed in Latin or a combination of Latin and other languages. Similar to axioms in geometry, legal maxims and phrases serve as fundamental principles that guide legal reasoning and interpretation. They are frequently used in legal documents and are also tested in law exams such as CLAT, Judiciary, and semester examinations.

Important Legal Maxims with Easy Meanings

  1. Ab Initio - From the beginning.
  2. Actionable per se - The very act is punishable, and no proof of damage is required.
  3. Actio personalis moritur cum persona - A personal right of action dies with the person.
  4. Actori incumbit onus probandi - The burden of proof is on the plaintiff.
  5. Actus me invito factus non est mens actus - An act done by me against my will is not my act.
  6. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea - An act does not make one guilty unless it is accompanied by a guilty mind.
  7. Actus reus - Guilty act.
  8. Actus Reus Non Facit Reum Nisi Mens Sit Rea - Conviction of a crime requires proof of a criminal act and intent.
  9. Ad hoc - For the particular end or case at hand.
  10. Alibi - At another place, elsewhere.

These are just a few examples of the numerous legal maxims and phrases that can prove invaluable to law students. Let's explore more of them in detail.

Maxims Explained

1. Ab Initio - From the beginning

The maxim "Ab Initio" signifies that something is considered from the very beginning or inception. In legal terms, it refers to a principle that an action or contract is void from the outset if it is tainted with illegality or if it was entered into with fraudulent intentions. For example, if a contract is formed based on false representations or fraud, it can be declared void ab initio.

2. Actionable per se - The very act is punishable, and no proof of damage is required

The maxim "Actionable per se" implies that certain acts are inherently wrong and can be considered punishable without requiring any proof of actual harm or damage. These acts are considered wrongful in and of themselves. For instance, assault, defamation, and trespassing are considered actionable per se as they violate an individual's rights and do not require proof of specific damages.

3. Actio personalis moritur cum persona - A personal right of action dies with the person

The maxim "Actio personalis moritur cum persona" states that a personal right of action ceases to exist upon the death of the person. In simple terms, if an individual has a claim or right to bring a legal action against someone, and they pass away, that claim or right does not pass on to their heirs or representatives. It extinguishes with their death.

4. Actori incumbit onus probandi - The burden of proof is on the plaintiff

The maxim "Actori incumbit onus probandi" places the burden of proof on the plaintiff in a legal proceeding. It means that the party bringing the lawsuit must provide sufficient evidence to prove their claims. The plaintiff has the responsibility of presenting facts and establishing a convincing case to convince the court of the defendant's liability.

5. Actus me invito factus non est mens actus - An act done by me against my will is not my act

The maxim "Actus me invito factus non est mens actus" emphasizes that an act performed against one's will cannot be considered as their own act. This maxim is relevant in cases where an individual is coerced or forced to commit an act under duress or threat. In such situations, the person cannot be held fully responsible for their actions as their free will is compromised.

6. Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea - An act does not make one guilty unless it is accompanied by a guilty mind

The maxim "Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea" highlights the importance of mens rea, which refers to the mental state or intent of the accused while committing a crime. According to this maxim, a person cannot be held guilty merely on the basis of their actions. There must be evidence of a guilty mind or criminal intent accompanying the act for them to be considered legally responsible.

7. Actus reus - Guilty act

The term "Actus reus" refers to the physical act or conduct that constitutes a crime. It is the external element of a crime that can be objectively observed and proven. While actus reus is an essential component in establishing criminal liability, it must be accompanied by mens rea to establish the full culpability of the accused.

8. Actus Reus Non Facit Reum Nisi Mens Sit Rea - Conviction of a crime requires proof of a criminal act and intent

The maxim "Actus Reus Non Facit Reum Nisi Mens Sit Rea" emphasizes that a conviction for a crime necessitates the demonstration of both a criminal act (actus reus) and a guilty mind (mens rea). A person cannot be held criminally liable if they have only committed a physical act without the requisite intent to commit the crime.

9. Ad hoc - For the particular end or case at hand

The term "Ad hoc" is used to describe something that is specifically designed or intended for a particular purpose or situation. In the legal context, it refers to actions or decisions that are made for a specific case or situation, rather than being based on general principles or precedents. Ad hoc measures are temporary and tailored to address a particular need or issue.

10. Alibi - At another place, elsewhere

The term "Alibi" is commonly used in criminal law to refer to a defense strategy where the accused presents evidence to prove that they were at another place, elsewhere, at the time the alleged crime was committed. An alibi can be established through witness testimony, documentary evidence, or any other form of evidence that supports the claim of being in a different location.

11. Amicus Curiae - A friend of the court or member of the Bar who is appointed to assist the court

The term "Amicus Curiae" refers to an individual or organization that is not a party to a legal case but offers expertise or advice to the court on specific matters related to the case. The court may appoint an amicus curiae to provide impartial guidance and insights to ensure a fair and informed decision. The role of an amicus curiae is to assist the court in reaching a just and well-informed judgment.

12. Ante Litem Motam - Before suit brought; before controversy instituted, or spoken before a lawsuit is brought

The phrase "Ante Litem Motam" is used to describe events or actions that occurred before a legal dispute arose or before a lawsuit was initiated. It signifies actions or events that are relevant to the dispute but occurred before the controversy or legal proceedings began. Ante litem motam can be significant in determining the rights and liabilities of the parties involved in a legal dispute.

13. Assentio mentium - The meeting of minds, i.e. mutual assents

The phrase "Assentio mentium" refers to the meeting of minds or mutual assent between two or more parties involved in a contract or agreement. It signifies that all parties involved have agreed to the same terms and conditions, demonstrating a clear intention to be bound by the agreement. Assentio mentium is essential in establishing the validity and enforceability of a contract.

14. Audi alteram partem - No man shall be condemned unheard

The maxim "Audi alteram partem" emphasizes the fundamental principle of natural justice that no person should be condemned or judged without being given a fair opportunity to present their case. It ensures that both sides of a dispute or legal matter are heard and considered before a decision is made. This maxim is a cornerstone of procedural fairness and the right to a fair trial.

15. Bona fide - In good faith

The term "Bona fide" is used to describe actions or intentions that are made in good faith, without any fraudulent or malicious intent. When parties act bona fide, it means they are acting honestly, sincerely, and without any deceit. Bona fide actions are considered legitimate and lawful, and they are protected under the law.

16. Bona vacantia - Goods without an owner

The term "Bona vacantia" refers to goods or property that have no rightful owner. These goods may include abandoned property, unclaimed assets, or property that has been declared forfeited. Bona vacantia is a legal concept that deals with the disposition of such property and ensures that it is managed or distributed according to applicable laws and regulations.

17. Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem - It is the part of a good judge to enlarge his jurisdiction, i.e. remedial authority

The maxim "Boni judicis est ampliare jurisdictionem" highlights the discretionary power of a judge to extend or expand their jurisdiction or remedial authority in certain situations where it is necessary to deliver justice. It signifies that a good judge should be able to exercise their judgment and take appropriate actions to ensure fair and just outcomes, even if it requires expanding their jurisdiction to do so.

18. Caveat - A caution registered with the public court to indicate that they are not to act in the matter mentioned in the caveat without first giving notice to the caveator

The term "Caveat" refers to a cautionary note or warning registered with a public court or authority. It serves as a notice to the court that they should not take any action or make any decisions regarding a specific matter without first notifying the person who lodged the caveat. A caveat is often used to protect the rights or interests of an individual or party involved in a legal matter.

19. Caveat actor - Let the doer beware

The maxim "Caveat actor" signifies the principle that individuals should be cautious and responsible for their own actions and decisions. It implies that a person should be aware of the consequences and potential risks associated with their actions before proceeding. Caveat actor encourages individuals to exercise due diligence and take personal responsibility for their choices.

20. Caveat emptor - Let the buyer beware

The maxim "Caveat emptor" is commonly used in the context of contract law, particularly in relation to the sale of goods. It means that the buyer should be cautious and aware of the risks and quality of the goods they are purchasing. The seller is not obligated to disclose any hidden defects or issues with the goods, and it is the buyer's responsibility to ensure that they are making an informed decision.

21. Caveat venditor - Let the seller beware

The maxim "Caveat venditor" is the counterpart of caveat emptor. It places the responsibility and obligation on the seller to disclose any defects or issues with the goods they are selling. The seller must ensure that they provide accurate information and do not engage in misleading or deceptive practices. Caveat venditor emphasizes the importance of transparency and fairness in commercial transactions.

22. Certiorari - A writ by which orders passed by an inferior court are quashed

The term "Certiorari" refers to a writ issued by a higher court to review and quash the orders or judgments passed by an inferior court. Certiorari is a discretionary power of the higher court to examine the legality and correctness of the decisions made by lower courts. It ensures that legal errors or miscarriages of justice can be rectified through a review process.

23. Communis hostis omnium - They are common enemies of all. The common enemy of everyone

The maxim "Communis hostis omnium" signifies that certain individuals or entities can be considered common enemies of all, posing a threat or harm to society as a whole. This maxim is often used in the context of criminal acts, where individuals engaged in activities such as terrorism, piracy, or organized crime are deemed to be common enemies of society. It emphasizes the collective responsibility to combat such threats.

24. Corpus - Body

The term "Corpus" refers to the physical body of a person or the main body of a legal document or statute. In legal contexts, it is often used to describe the body of laws or principles governing a particular area of law. Corpus can also refer to the physical remains of a deceased person, such as a corpse.

25. Corpus delicti - The facts and circumstances constituting a crime and concrete evidence of a crime, such as a corpse (dead body)

The term "Corpus delicti" refers to the body of evidence or the essential elements that establish the commission of a crime. It includes the facts and circumstances surrounding the crime and any tangible evidence, such as a murder weapon or a dead body. Corpus delicti is crucial in proving the occurrence of a crime before an individual can be convicted.

26. Crimen trahit personam - The crime carries the person

The maxim "Crimen trahit personam" signifies that an individual who commits a crime can be held responsible and subject to legal consequences regardless of their location or jurisdiction. It implies that the law follows the person, and if a person commits a crime in any jurisdiction, they can be held accountable under the relevant laws and regulations.

27. Damnum sine injuria - Damages without injuries

The maxim "Damnum sine injuria" refers to situations where damages or harm are caused to an individual without any legal injury or violation of their rights. It implies that even though a person may suffer losses or damages, if there is no infringement of their legal rights, there is no legal ground for claiming compensation or seeking redress.

28. De facto - In fact

The term "De facto" is used to describe something that exists or is done in fact, regardless of whether it is officially recognized or authorized. It signifies the actual state of affairs or the practical reality, rather than the legal or formal status. De facto situations can arise in various contexts, such as de facto relationships or de facto governments.

29. De jure - By law

The term "De jure" refers to something that is recognized or established by law. It signifies the legal or rightful status of an entity or situation. De jure rights, obligations, or authorities are those that are conferred or recognized by law, as opposed to de facto rights or authorities that exist in practice but may not be legally recognized.

30. De minimis - About minimal things

The term "De minimis" is used to describe matters or issues that are so minor or insignificant that they are considered immaterial or unworthy of consideration. De minimis matters are often disregarded or not given significant weight in legal proceedings or decision-making processes. They are deemed too trivial to have a substantial impact on the outcome.

31. De Minimis Non Curat Lex - The law does not govern trifles

The maxim "De Minimis Non Curat Lex" emphasizes that the law does not concern itself with trifles or insignificant matters. It implies that the legal system is primarily concerned with addressing substantial issues and disputes that have a significant impact on individuals' rights, obligations, or interests. Trivial matters are generally not given high priority in legal proceedings.

32. De novo - To make something anew

The term "De novo" refers to starting afresh or making something anew. In legal contexts, it is often used to describe a review or hearing that takes place as if the previous decision or ruling had never occurred. De novo proceedings involve a fresh examination of the facts and issues, allowing for a new determination or decision to be made.

33. Dictum - Statement of law made by the judge in the course of the decision but not necessary to the decision itself

The term "Dictum" refers to a statement of law made by a judge during the course of a decision that is not essential or necessary to the decision itself. It represents the judge's opinion or commentary on a legal issue, but it does not form part of the binding precedent or the ratio decidendi of the case. Dicta may provide guidance or insights but do not carry the same weight as the ratio decidendi.

34. Doli capax - Capable of forming necessary intent to commit a crime

The term "Doli capax" signifies an individual's capacity or ability to form the necessary intent to commit a crime. It refers to a person's mental capacity to understand the nature and consequences of their actions and to have the required intent to commit a criminal act. Doli capax is a significant factor in determining criminal liability, as it relates to the accused's state of mind.

35. Doli incapax - Incapable of crime

The term "Doli incapax" refers to the legal presumption that children under a certain age are incapable of committing a crime due to their lack of understanding or maturity. It recognizes that young children may not possess the requisite mental capacity or intent to be held criminally responsible for their actions. The age of criminal responsibility varies across jurisdictions.

36. Detinue - Tort of wrongfully holding goods that belong to someone else

The term "Detinue" refers to a tort or legal action that involves the wrongful holding or detention of goods or property that belong to someone else. Detinue allows the rightful owner to seek the return of their property or claim compensation for any losses suffered as a result of the wrongful detention. It is a remedy for cases where someone refuses to return property rightfully belonging to another.

37. Donatio mortis causa - Gift because of death

The term "Donatio mortis causa" refers to a gift made by a person in contemplation of their imminent death. It is a type of gift that is conditional upon the donor's death and is intended to take effect only if the donor passes away. Donatio mortis causa allows individuals to transfer their property before death, providing a degree of certainty and control over the disposition of their assets.

38. Estoppel - Prevented from denying

The term "Estoppel" refers to a legal doctrine that prevents a person from denying or contradicting their own previous statements, actions, or representations if it would be unfair or unjust to do so. Estoppel is based on the principle of fairness and prevents individuals from acting in a way that would be inconsistent with their prior words or conduct. It promotes consistency and prevents deception or abuse of rights.

39. Ex gratia - As favor

The term "Ex gratia" is used to describe actions or payments made as a favor or goodwill gesture, rather than as a legal obligation. Ex gratia payments or actions are often made out of a sense of generosity, compassion, or to maintain positive relationships. They are not required by law, but rather provided voluntarily as a gesture of goodwill.

40. Ex officio - Because of an office held

The term "Ex officio" describes actions or powers that are granted to an individual by virtue of the office or position they hold. It signifies that certain rights, responsibilities, or authorities are automatically conferred on someone because of their official position. Ex officio powers or actions are derived from the role or office itself, rather than being based on personal qualifications or achievements.

41. Ex parte - Proceedings in the absence of the other party

The term "Ex parte" describes proceedings or actions that are conducted in the absence of the other party involved in a legal matter. It means that one party has sought relief or made submissions to the court without the presence or participation of the opposing party. Ex parte proceedings are typically limited to specific circumstances, such as urgent matters where immediate action is required.

42. Ex post facto - Out of the aftermath

The term "Ex post facto" refers to laws or actions that have retroactive effect, meaning they apply to events or actions that occurred before the enactment of the law or decision. Ex post facto laws are generally disfavored as they can potentially infringe upon an individual's rights or create unjust outcomes. They are prohibited in many legal systems to ensure fairness and predictability.

43. Falsus in uno falsus in omnibus - It means false in one thing, false in everything

The maxim "Falsus in uno falsus in omnibus" suggests that a witness who is shown to be dishonest or untruthful in one aspect of their testimony can be presumed to be unreliable or untruthful in other aspects as well. However, it is important to note that this maxim is not strictly followed in Indian law, as held in the case of Suchita Singh and Anr vs State of Punjab and Ors (2015).

44. Fatum - Beyond human foresight

The term "Fatum" refers to events or circumstances that are beyond human foresight or control. It signifies that certain outcomes or consequences are determined by fate or destiny and cannot be predicted or influenced by human actions. Fatum acknowledges the limits of human agency and recognizes that some events are simply beyond our control.

45. Factum probandum - It means the facts that need to be proved

The term "Factum probandum" refers to the facts or elements of a case that need to be proven in order to establish a claim or defense. It represents the essential facts that must be demonstrated to convince the court of the validity or truthfulness of a particular assertion. Factum probandum is a fundamental concept in legal proceedings, as it forms the basis for presenting evidence and building a persuasive argument.

46. Factum probans - Relevant fact

The term "Factum probans" refers to a fact or statement of facts that is offered as evidence to prove another fact. It represents the actual evidence or proof that is presented in court to establish the truth or validity of a particular claim. Factum probans is crucial in the process of presenting a case and supporting legal arguments with credible and admissible evidence.

47. Fraus est celare fraudem - It is a fraud to conceal a fraud

The maxim "Fraus est celare fraudem" emphasizes that concealing or hiding a fraud is itself considered fraudulent. It signifies that individuals who engage in deceptive practices or attempt to cover up their fraudulent activities are committing further acts of fraud. This maxim reinforces the principle of honesty and integrity in legal proceedings and discourages individuals from engaging in fraudulent behavior.

48. Functus officio - No longer having power or jurisdiction

The term "Functus officio" refers to a person or entity that has completed their official duties or responsibilities and no longer has the power or jurisdiction to act. It signifies that once a person has fulfilled their obligations or completed a particular role, they cannot exercise further authority or make decisions in that capacity. Functus officio ensures that individuals or entities do not continue to exercise power beyond their designated term or scope.

49. Furiosi nulla voluntas est - Mentally impaired or mentally incapable persons cannot validly sign a will, contract, or form the frame of mind necessary to commit a crime

The maxim "Furiosi nulla voluntas est" recognizes that mentally impaired or mentally incapable persons lack the capacity to form the necessary intent or frame of mind to enter into a legally binding contract, sign a will, or commit a crime. It acknowledges that individuals with mental illness or impairment cannot fully exercise their free will or make informed decisions.

50. Furious absentis loco est - A madman is like one who is absent

The maxim "Furious absentis loco est" suggests that a person who is mentally ill or insane should be treated as if they were absent or not present. It implies that individuals with severe mental illness cannot be held fully accountable for their actions, as their mental state prevents them from understanding the consequences or exercising rational judgment.

51. Furiosis furore suo punier - A madman is best punished by his own madness

The maxim "Furiosis furore suo punier" suggests that a person suffering from mental illness or madness is best punished by the consequences of their own actions or condition. It implies that individuals who engage in harmful or dangerous behavior due to their mental state will ultimately suffer the negative consequences of their actions, which can serve as a form of punishment.

52. Furiosis nulla voluntas est - A madman has no will

The maxim "Furiosis nulla voluntas est" recognizes that individuals suffering from mental illness or insanity lack the capacity to exercise their own free will or make informed decisions. It emphasizes that their mental impairment prevents them from having the necessary judgment or control over their actions. This maxim underscores the need for appropriate treatment and support for individuals with mental illness.

53. Habeas corpus - A writ to have the body of a person brought in before the judge

The term "Habeas corpus" refers to a legal writ or order that requires a person who is detained or imprisoned to be brought before a judge or court. Habeas corpus is a fundamental safeguard of personal liberty, ensuring that individuals are not unlawfully or arbitrarily detained. It allows individuals to challenge the lawfulness of their detention and seek relief from unwarranted imprisonment.

54. Ignorantia facit doth excusat, Ignorance juris non-excusat - Ignorance of fact is an excuse, but ignorance of the law is no excuse

The maxim "Ignorantia facit doth excusat, Ignorance juris non-excusat" draws a distinction between ignorance of fact and ignorance of the law. It suggests that individuals may be excused for their actions if they were genuinely unaware of certain facts or circumstances. However, ignorance of the law itself does not provide a valid excuse for violating legal obligations. It emphasizes the importance of individuals familiarizing themselves with the law to ensure compliance.

55. Ignorantia juris non excusat - Ignorance of law is not an excuse

The term "Ignorantia juris non excusat" reflects the principle that ignorance of the law does not absolve individuals from liability or legal consequences. It implies that individuals are expected to be aware of the laws that govern their actions and responsibilities, irrespective of their knowledge or understanding. Ignorance of the law is generally not accepted as a valid defense in legal proceedings.

56. Injuria sine damno - Injury without damage

The maxim "Injuria sine damno" signifies that an injury or legal wrong has been committed without causing any actual damage or harm. It recognizes that certain actions or behaviors may be wrongful or violative of an individual's rights, even if they do not result in tangible or quantifiable harm. Injuria sine damno is relevant in cases where the violation of a right itself is considered sufficient grounds for legal action.

57. Ipso facto - By the mere fact

The term "Ipso facto" is used to describe something that occurs or takes effect by the mere fact of a particular event or circumstance. It signifies that a consequence or result is automatically triggered or brought about by a specific action or occurrence. Ipso facto situations involve direct cause-and-effect relationships, where the occurrence of one event leads to the automatic occurrence of another.

58. In promptu - In readiness

The term "In promptu" indicates that something is prepared or made available in readiness for a particular purpose or situation. It implies that necessary resources, information, or actions have been taken to ensure preparedness and efficiency in addressing a specific need or requirement. In promptu measures are essential in maintaining readiness and responsiveness in various legal contexts.

59. In lieu of - Instead of

The term "In lieu of" is used to indicate that something is provided or received instead of something else. It signifies that an alternative or substitute is being offered or accepted in place of what was originally expected or required. In legal contexts, in lieu of payments or arrangements may be made to fulfill certain obligations or expectations.

60. In personam - A proceeding in which relief is sought against a specific person

The term "In personam" describes a legal proceeding or action in which relief or remedies are sought against a specific individual or party. It signifies that the claims or demands are directed towards a particular person and are intended to establish personal rights or liabilities. In personam proceedings involve the determination of rights and obligations that are specific to the individuals involved.

These are just a few of the legal maxims and phrases that law students should be acquainted with. Let's continue exploring more of them.

Maxims for a Deeper Understanding (Continued)

61. Innuendo - Spoken words that are defamatory because they have a double meaning

The term "Innuendo" refers to spoken words or statements that are defamatory due to their double meaning or hidden implications. Innuendo involves the use of language or expressions that may appear innocuous on the surface but carry a defamatory meaning when interpreted or understood in a particular context. Innuendo can play a significant role in defamation cases, as it requires careful analysis of the intended meaning behind the words used.

62. In status quo - In the present state

The term "In status quo" describes the current or existing state of affairs. It signifies that things are maintained in their present condition or situation without any significant changes or alterations. In legal contexts, in status quo can refer to maintaining the existing rights, responsibilities, or arrangements until a decision or resolution is reached.

63. Inter alia - Among other things

The term "Inter alia" is used to indicate that something is part of a larger set or list of things. It signifies that the item or concept being discussed is one of several examples or instances that fall within a broader category. Inter alia is often used to highlight that the mentioned item is not exhaustive and that there are additional relevant elements or considerations.

64. Inter vivos - Between living people (especially of a gift as opposed to a legacy)

The term "Inter vivos" refers to transactions or arrangements that occur between living individuals, particularly in the context of gifts. It signifies that the transfer of property, rights, or obligations takes place during the lifetime of the parties involved, as opposed to occurring through a will or inheritance after death. Inter vivos transactions are typically voluntary and require the consent of all parties.

65. Interest Reipublicae Ut Sit Finis Litium - It means it is in the interest of the state that there should be an end to litigation

The maxim "Interest Reipublicae Ut Sit Finis Litium" highlights the importance of bringing an end to litigation in the interest of the state or public welfare. It emphasizes the need for timely and efficient resolution of legal disputes to ensure the stability and functioning of the legal system. This maxim recognizes that prolonged litigation can lead to social and economic costs and encourages the promotion of alternative dispute resolution methods.

66. Jus cogens or ius cogens - Compelling law

The term "Jus cogens" or "ius cogens" refers to peremptory norms or principles of law that are considered fundamental and non-derogable. Jus cogens norms are seen as compelling and universally recognized, superseding other laws or agreements that may conflict with them. They represent the highest level of legal norms and cover areas such as human rights, genocide, and crimes against humanity.

67. Jus in personam - Right against a specific person (or party)

The term "Jus in personam" refers to a legal right or claim that is enforceable against a specific individual or party. It signifies that the right is personal and can be asserted or exercised against a particular person. Jus in personam encompasses rights such as contractual obligations, tort claims, or familial rights that are specific to the parties involved.

68. Jus in rem - Right against the world at large

The term "Jus in rem" represents a legal right or claim that is enforceable against the world at large. It signifies that the right is not limited to specific individuals or parties but extends to all individuals within a particular jurisdiction. Jus in rem rights typically involve property ownership, intellectual property rights, or other rights that can be asserted against anyone who infringes upon them.

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